EPEG 413 
EPEG 413 POWER SYSTEMS II 3 Credits Objective: To gain a broad understanding of the performance of modern power systems and the analysis and computation of large three phase systems. Syllabus: General Background: Growth of electric power system, energy production; Transmission and distribution; Load studies, economic load dispatch, fault calculations; System protection, stability studies; Power system engineering. Introduction: Single and double subscript notation, power in singlephase AC circuits; Complex power triangle, direction of power flow; Voltage and current in balanced three phase circuits; Power in balanced three phase circuits; Per unit quantities. System Modelling: Construction of synchronous machine; Armature reaction and circuit model in a synchronous machine; Effect of synchronous machine excitation; Ideal transformer, equivalent circuit of practical transformer; Autotransformer, PU impedance in 1phase transformer circuits, 3phase transformer; PU impedance of 3 winding transformer; One line diagram, impedance and reactance diagram; Advantages of PU computing. LoadFlow Solutions and Control: Data for load flow studies; GaussSeidel method, Newton  Raphson method; Digital  computer studies of load flow; Information obtained in a load flow study, numerical results; Control of power into a network; Specification of bus; Voltage, capacitor banks, control by transformer; Optimal load flow solution Symmetrical Three Phase Faults: Transients in RL series circuits; Short  circuit currents and the reactances of synchronous machines; Internal voltages of loaded machines under transient condition; Bus impedance matrix in fault calculations; Bus impedance matrix equivalent networks; Selection of circuit breakers Symmetrical Components: Synthesis of asymmetrical phasors from their symmetrical components; Symmetrical components of asymmetrical phasors; Phase shift of symmetrical components in YDelta transformer banks; Power in terms of symmetrical components; Unsymmetrical series impedances, sequence impedances and sequence networks; Sequence networks of unloaded generators, sequence impedance positive and negative sequence networks, zero sequence networks. Unsymmetrical Faults: Single line to ground fault on an unloaded generator; Line to line fault on an unloaded generator; Double line to ground fault of an unloaded generator, Unsymmetrical faults on power systems; Single line to ground fault on power system; Line to line fault on power system; Double line to ground fault on a power system; Interpretation of the interconnected sequence networks; Analysis of unsymmetrical faults using the bus impedance matrix; Fault through impedance, computer calculations of fault currents Power System Stability: Stability problem, rotor dynamics and the swing equation; Power angle equation, synchronising power coefficients; Equal area criterion of stability, further applications of the equal area criterion; Multimachine stability studies classical representation; Step by step solution of the swing curve; Transient stability studies, factor affecting transient stability. References:
