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EPEG 317

EEEG 317                   MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION                              3 Credits

Objective: To become familiar with the principles, architecture and design of instrumentation systems used for measurement and control.

Syllabus:

Introduction to Process Control: Definitions of terms used in measurement and instrumentation; measurement, instrument, measurand, meter, metrology; Example of process control; Automatic process control; Advantages of electronics in measuring systems; Measurement and process control systems; Analog measuring system model: temperature control process with analog method; Digital processing systems: digital supervisory and analog process control systems, computer based direct digital control

Fundamental and Derived Units in the SI Units: Standards, accuracy, precision, resolution, sensitivity, significant figures, errors, limiting error; Statistical analysis: average/mean value, deviation from mean value, average deviation, standard deviation, variance, probability of error, histogram, probable error.

Introduction to Electromechanical Indicating Instruments: Operating principle of permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC) galvanometer, dynamic behavior of PMMC movement, taut band suspension galvanometer; DC meters: ammeters, voltmeter, ohmmeter, voltmeter loading effects, meter protection techniques, electronic voltmeter

AC Measurement: Sinusoidal signal parameters (average, RMS, peak and peak-to-peak relations); parameter relations in half-wave rectified sinusoidal signals, full-wave rectified sinusoidal signals, triangular wave forms dc signals with sinusoidal waves superimposed, and square waves. Measurement with PMMC movement using single diode and bridge diode rectification; The form factor; Operating principle of AC voltmeter, peak reading meter, current transformer, power meters, power factor meter, watt-hour meter, and electrodynamometer; Cathode Ray Oscilloscope– basic principles and applications.

Introduction to Signal Conditioning: Analog signal conditioning: linearization techniques, signal conversion, filtering, impedance and power matching; Operational amplifier in various configurations: ideal Op-amp analysis, Op-amp specifications, non-inverting amplifier, inverting amplifier, summing amplifier, differential amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, integrator, differentiator, logarithmic amplifier, comparator.

Digital Signal Conditioning Circuits: Interfacing with the analog world (principle); Digital to analog conversion principle and circuits: standard DAC with binary inputs, DAC resolution, step size, input weight etc. DAC formulae, DAC with BCD input codes, bipolar DACs, DAC circuits, integrated circuit DACs; Analog to digital conversion: counter type ADC, successive approximation type ADC, flash type ADC and design principle, resolution, reference voltage and formulae, integrated ADC circuits; Sample and hold techniques and circuit principle. Time-multiplexing techniques.

Data Acquisition Techniques: Introduction to data acquisition techniques, data acquisition systems or boards, data communication standards (RS 232, RS-485, USB, etc.) for data acquisition, data logger without and with computer supervisory control

Bridges: Measuring principles using bridges: resistance measurement with Wheatstone bridge, inductance measurement with Maxwell and Hay bridges, capacitance measurement with Schering bridge, bridge unbalanced conditions and their use in measurement, problems in bridges;

Transducers and Sensors: Voltage measurement using potentiometer; Production of constant current sources; Temperature measurement: operating principle of temperature sensors: metallic sensors (KTY-10)- temperature to resistance, voltage and current, semiconductor sensors (thermistor), thermocouple; Optical sensors: Voltage to light: LED; Light to current or voltage: photo-diode, photo-transistor; Light to resistance: LDR; Detection of velocity changes using optical sensors; Pressure and torque sensors: strain gauge, liquid pressure sensors; Position sensors: potentiometer; LVDT: induction change with position; Capacitance change with position.

References:

  1. Murty, Transducer and Instrumentation, PHI 1995
  2. A F P Van Putten, Electronic Measurement Systems, Prentice-Hall 1989
  3. S Wolf & RFM Smith, Students Reference Manual for Electronic Instrumentation Laboratories, Prentice-Hall
  4. Morris, Principles of measurement and Instrumentation, 2nd Ed PHI 1995
  5. Johnson, Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 4th Ed PHI 1995
 

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